Question 5

5. Examining all of the material we have discussed in this course, identify at least three (3) areas where you have been able to shine a personal light (e.g,. identity development, gender issues, intimacy, peer relationships, etc.). Especially focus on those “aha!” moments which you may have experienced during this course. That is, in reflecting on the course material, identify three personal areas of growth and share your journey. Frame your essay in the language of our text and consider recent research.



My biggest Aha! Moment came when after reflecting on the Kinsey scale, I came to the conclusion that it would be better to use a table instead of a continuum:

High Opposite Sex Attraction
Low Opposite Sex Attraction
High Same Sex Attraction
Bisexual
Homosexual
Low Same Sex Attraction
Heterosexual
Asexual
I think the table approach is better because it leaves room for individuals who are asexual or lack sexual desire. Where would an asexual be placed on the Kinsey scale? He or she cannot be.

After coming to this conclusion, I did some research on asexuality. I found out that Kinsey added a category “X” to his 0-6 scale for asexuals. I didn’t know this because the texts I read that briefly touch on Kinsey’s research never mention the “X” category for people who are asexual. Kinsey’s research suggests that 1.5 percent of the adult male population is asexual. More current research by Anthony Bogaert suggests that around 1% of humans are asexual.

I found out that there is not that much research on asexuality. In addition, I discovered that there are psychological terms for individuals who fall in the grey area between asexuality and sexuality. Here are some examples:

Demisexual- is a person who does not experience sexual attraction until they form a strong emotional connection with someone, often (but not always) in a romantic relationship.

Hyposexual-A person with a low sex drive. This is a person who experiences sexual attraction, but not much and because if this, the person may choose not to act on his or her attraction.

Like bisexuality and homosexuality, asexuality used to be seen as a disorder. In other words, if you are asexual, something must be wrong with you. Asexual activist groups, such as AVEN, are trying to fight this.

My second aha moment goes along with this one. As I did more and more research on human sexuality, I discovered all these grey areas such as asexuality and then I discovered more grey areas between those grey areas. Basically, I discovered that things are rarely black and white when you really research them. There always seems to be grey areas and are more complex then they appear.

Kinsey, Alfred C. (1948). Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. W.B. Saunders.

Kinsey, Alfred C. (1953). Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. W. B. Saunders



Dr Anthony Bogaert explored the asexual demographic in a series of studies and estimated that percentage of asexuality to be around 1%.

There has not been much research on asexuality so this so this number should be considered “very tentative.”
If the 1% statistic holds true, the world population of asexual people would stand at over 60 million.

Bogaert, Anthony F. (2004). " Asexuality: prevalence and associated factors in a national probability sample". Journal of Sex Research 41 (3): 281 Retrieved on 31 August, 2007.
10. ↑ Bogaert, Anthony F. (2006). "Toward a conceptual understanding of asexuality". Review of General Psychology 10 (3): 241-250 Retrieved on 31 August, 2007.




Area #1: Parenting Styles

From Textbook: (p.145-146)

~Authoritative: respsonsive and demanding
outcomes: most favorable, do better in school, more independent and self-assured, less anxious and depressed, less likely to get in trouble
~Authoritarian: demanding but unresponsive
outcomes: more dependent and passive, less self-assured, weak self-esteem
~Indulgent: responsive but undemanding (children are allowed to do as they please)
outcomes: more immature and irresponsibile; more influenced by their peers
~Indifferent: undemanding and unresponsive (barely any time and energy on the kid)
outcomes: little interest in school, more likely to get involved in delinquency, earlier sexual activity and drug use

**This was an Aha area for me because it made me understand the impact parents have on the development of their kids. As a teacher, this was important for me to learn so I can better understand where my students are coming from.

Outside Research:


~Dekovic, M. & Janssens, J. (1992). Parents' Child-Rearing Style and Child's Sociometric Status. Developmental Psychology, 28(5), 925-932.

This study further supports the idea that popular and rejected children have different family experiences.

~Gregory, A., Cornell, D., Fan, X., Sheras, P., Shih, T., & Huang, F. (2010). Authoritative School Discipline: High School Practices Associated with Lower Bullying and Victimization. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 483-496.


This study found that the authoitative discipline theory of both structure and support resulted in students feeling safer in schools.Article from cornell further describing the 4 pareting styles and their outcomes on adolescents

Area #2: The Statistics of Suicide

From Textbook: (p.458-461)

~one in six high school students have thought about suicide
~one in twelve attempted to kill themselves at least once
~boys are 4 times as likely to die from suicide
~Signs to look for: being bullied, worsening school performance, withdrawal from friends, expressions of sadness, excessive interest in death, expressing that life is meaningless
~What to do: don't be afraid of being wrong (they will know someone cares), ask them directly if they are considering it, don't minimize their problems

**This was a big Aha moment for me because when I read these statistics, it made me more aware that many more of my students than what I considered could be contemplating with the thought of suicide. This opened my mind for what to look for and what to do in the event that I suspect a student might have suicidal thoughts.

Outside Research:


~Moskos, M., Achilles, J., & Gray, D. (2004). Adolescent Suicide Myths in the United States. Crisis, 25(4), 176-182.

This article discussed the myths about teen suicide and provided recommendations.

Area #3: Importance of Friends

From Textbook: (p.396-398)

~High-quality friendship: a relationship that has many positive features and few negative features
~Low-quality friendship: a relationship where negative features outweigh positive features
~Positive features: companionship, intimacy, loyalty, trust, warmth, assistance, acceptance, support, guidance
~Negative features: domination, conflict, hostility, rivalry, belittlement, betrayal
~"High-quality friendships provide an array of benefits that includes higher self-esteem, greater involvement in school, and higher social acceptance" (McMahan, 2009, p.397).
~If students who are bullied have one close friend, their emotional problems are less likely to increase.

**This was an Aha moment for me because it made me think about the adolescents with which I work. I feel like so many students value quantity of friends over quality and this section of the book made me realize how important quality is.

Outside Research:


~Schwartz, D., Dodge, K., Pettit, G., & Bates, J. (2000). Friendship as a Moderating Factor in the Pathway Between Early Harsh Home Environment and Later Victimization in the Peer Group. Developmental Psychology, 36(5), 646-662.

This study showed that among the students who were more likely to be bullied by peers, those with more friends were bullied less.

~Glick, G. C., & Rose, A. J. (2011). Prospective Associations Between Friendship Adjustment and Social Strategies: Friendship as a Context for Building Social Skills. Developmental Psychology . Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0023277

This study looked at how friendships impact social competencies.


An article out of University of North Carolina regarding adolescent friendships



Area #1: Egocentrism

We all know the stereotype that adolescents, especially younger ones, are self-centered. What helped me understand this better, though, were some of the definitions and developmental models -- that young teens don't have anything necessarily wrong with their thinking, they are just following normal progressions.

From MacMahan, p. 113-114
  • egocentrism -- failure to distinguish between one's own point of view and that of others (Piaget)
  • imaginary audience -- believing that one is the focus of other people's attention (Elkins), usually fades by age 15-16
  • personal fable -- believing that one's experiences and feelings are completely unique (Elkins)

My 13 year old students seem so devastated by friendship and relationship changes, and it really helps me sympathize if I view their drama through the lens of development, that now that they are in the formal operations stage, they have a new capacity to examine and reflect on what is going on in their lives, and that this may be the very first breakup they've had so of course it seems earth-shattering -- they have no other breakups to compare it to.

I appreciated that the text also highlighted some potential benefits of this egocentrism -- that believing in a personal fable, that you are exempt from normal consequences, may actually give some youth the strength they need to pursue their callings despite discouragement from people around them.

From outside research

Reyna, V. F., & Farley, F. (2006). Risk and Rationality in Adolescent Decision Making: Implications for Theory, Practice, and Public Policy. Psychological Science in the Public Interest (Wiley-Blackwell), 7(1), 1-44. doi:10.1111/j.1529-1006.2006.00026.x

risk taking article

This article looks at the importance of considering adolescents' different personality styles and goals in order to design most effective programs to minimize risky life-threatening behaviors.

Some key facts:

"In principle …adolescents are capable of rational decision making to achieve their goals. In practice, much depends on the particular situation in which a decision is made. In the heat of passion, in the presence of peers, on the spur of the moment, in unfamiliar situations, when trading off risks and benefits favors bad long-term outcomes, and when behavioral inhibition is required for good outcomes, adolescents are likely to reason more poorly than adults do. Brain maturation in adolescence is incomplete. Impulsivity, sensation seeking, thrill seeking, depression, and other individual differences also contribute to risk taking that resists standard risk-reduction interventions, although some conditions such as depression can be effectively treated with other approaches."

"Counterintuitive findings that must be accommodated by any adequate theory of risk taking include the following: (a) Despite conventional wisdom, adolescents do not perceive themselves to be invulnerable, and perceived vulnerability declines with increasing age; (b) although the
object of many interventions is to enhance the accuracy of risk perceptions, adolescents typically overestimate important risks, such as HIV and lung cancer; (c) despite increasing competence in reasoning, some biases in judgment and decision making grow with age, producing more ‘‘irrational’’ violations of coherence among adults than among adolescents and younger children. The latter occurs because of a known developmental increase in gist processing with age. One implication of these findings is that traditional interventions stressing accurate risk perceptions are apt to be ineffective or backfire because young people already feel vulnerable and overestimate their risk. In addition, research shows that experience is not a good teacher for children and younger adolescents, because they tend to learn little from negative outcomes (favoring the use of effective deterrents, such as monitoring and supervision), although learning from experience improves considerably with age. Experience in the absence of negative consequences may increase feelings of invulnerability and thus explain the decrease in risk perceptions from early to late adolescence, as exploration increases. Finally, novel interventions that discourage deliberate weighing of risks and benefits by adolescents may ultimately prove more effective and enduring. Mature adults apparently resist taking risks not out of any conscious deliberation or choice, but because they intuitively grasp the gists of risky situations, retrieve appropriate risk-avoidant values, and never proceed down the slippery slope of actually contemplating tradeoffs between risks and benefits."

  • Some "
Empirically Supported Recommendations for Policy and Practice"


1. Reduce risk by retaining or implementing higher drinking ages, eliminating or lowering the number of peers in automobiles for young drivers, and avoiding exposure to potentially addictive substances (rather than, for example, exposing minors to alcohol to teach them to drink responsibly).
2. Develop psychometric instruments that reliably distinguish risky deliberators who make decisions on the basis of perceived risks and benefits from those who merely react to environmental triggers.
3. Develop reasoned arguments and facts-based interventions (including information about social norms) for the risky deliberators, focusing on reducing perceived benefits of risky behaviors (and increasing perceived benefits of alternative behaviors) and spelling out consequences of risk taking. For younger or less mature adolescents, short-term costs and benefits should be highlighted.
4. Identify factors that move adolescents away from considering the degree of risk and the amount of benefit in risky behaviors toward categorical avoidance of major risks until they are developmentally prepared to handle the consequences.
5. Monitor and supervise younger adolescents rather than relying on them to make reasoned choices or to learn from the school of hard knocks, especially if assessments indicate that they are willing to take risks that they neither intend nor expect to take. Remove opportunity (e.g., by occupying their time with positive activities).
6. Practical self-binding strategies (avoiding situations that are likely to elicit temptation or that require behavioral inhibition) should be identified and encouraged.
7. Encourage the development of positive prototypes (gists) or images of healthy behaviors and negative images of unhealthy behaviors using visual depictions, films, novels, serial dramas and other emotionally evocative media.
8. Emphasize understanding of risk communications (e.g., why HIV, human papilloma virus, and herpes simplex virus are not treatable with antibiotics), and deriving the gist or bottom line of messages that will endure in memory longer than verbatim facts. Harmful consequences may not be understood because young people lack relevant experience; develop intuitive understanding of risky behaviors and their consequences.
9. Do not assume that adolescents think that they are immortal. On the contrary, provide concrete actions that they feel capable of taking that will reduce their risk. Teach self-efficacy, help them practice skills, and show them how they can control specific risk factors.
10. Provide frequent reminders of relevant knowledge and risk-avoidant values; even medical experts fail to retrieve what they know about sexually transmitted diseases without cues. (Repeating the same message over and over is likely to be ineffective, so changes in wording and presentation are required.)
11. Provide practice at recognizing cues in the environment that signal possible danger before it is too late to act.
12. Treat comorbid conditions, such as depression.


Area #2: Achievement

I am especially motivated to learn more in this area as I want all my students to achieve. Why are some so much more driven than others? What is happening differently in my honors class than in my regular classes? What are those key ingredients?

From MacMahan
parents: secure attachment, independence and achievement training (p. 293), involved in education (p. 294)
peers: socialization and selection
school climate: mastery oriented -- emphasis on effort and improvement
advantage of cultural capital (p. 300)
stereotype threat (302)
attitude toward intelligence: fixed vs. malleable ("Asian exception)
strong ethnic identity can promote achievement (p. 303)
motive to succeed or avoid failure (extrinsic or intrinsic)
values
attribution theory: locus of causality (stable, unstable and internal or external cause) (308-09)
expectancies

One moment that interested me was academic achievement and parents. While I was a good student through middle school and high school, it wasn't something that was overly stressed by my parents. Not that they didn't want me to do well, they did, their interest was more about knowing I was doing well rather than specifically what I was interested in.

This particular study looks at the ways parents are involved in their child's education and the outcomes. It also discusses the students self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation.



Fan, W., & Williams, C. M. (2010). The effects of parental involvement on students' academic self-efficacy, engagement and intrinsic motivation. Educational Psychology, 30(1), 53-74.



From outside research
Winne, P. & Nesbit, J. (2010). The psychology of academic achievement. Annual Review of Psychology, 61, 653-78.


There is plenty of research out there about the disadvantages created by SES, parental attitudes and education levels, etc. I appreciated this article because it points out what teachers can do to affect achievement.

Key points:
  • (p. 656) 25 heuristics for promoting learning: a lot of these teachers will already know but the list was a good reminder of research-based strategies that are most effective for students
    • perceptual-motor grounding
    • multimedia effects
    • spacing effect ("spaced schedules of studying and testing produce better long-term retention than a single study session or test")
    • generation effect (better to have learners produce answers than to simply recognize them -- multiple choice)
    • stories and examples cases (better remembered than just facts)
    • cognitive disequilibrium (learning stimulated by contradictions, conflicts, anomalies)
    • anchored learning (anchor material and skills to real-world)
    • self-regulated learning (students need training in this)
  • (p. 661) peer-supported learning interventions boost achievement, social competence, self-concept and task behavior particularly among urban, low-income, minority students (more opportunities for retrieving and activating schemas, elaborating new knowledge, self-monitoring)
    • reciprocal teaching (proven to be more effective than teacher-led Q&A) - p. 663
  • Piaget: equal-status peer interactions will more likely trigger cognitive disequilibrium than adult-child interaction (thus produce more engagement)
  • Vygotsky: build knowledge by working with someone who knows more than you
  • studies show that groups with similar abilities regressed in performance; results favor Vygotsky's theory (p. 662)
  • class size: low SES students, African American students, and inner city students benefit more from small classes (15 or less) than rest of population
    • benefits gained from small class sizes in grades K-3 last until at least 8th grade (p. 664)
  • benefit of homework optimal for grade 12: between 7-12 hours a week; weak if more than 20 or less than 6 hours a week (p. 665)
  • SES only moderately strong predictor of school achievement (not overwhelmingly predictive as believed before)
    • home literacy environment is a strong predictor of reading achievement
    • oral vocab transmission


Matthews, J. S., Kizzie, K. T., Rowley, S. J., & Cortina, K. (2010). African Americans and boys: Understanding the literacy gap, tracing academic trajectories, and evaluating the role of learning-related skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 757-771. doi:10.1037/a0019616


Most important point: yes, African American students and particularly boys enter school with many disadvantages (low SES, weaker home literacy environment, externalizing behaviors). The research highlighted in this article, though, indicates that the single most influential factor in this achievement gap is a deficit in LRS, learning related skills (task persistence, organization, attention control, learning independence, flexible thinking). LRS levels predict math and literacy achievement between kindergarten and 6th grade. Instead of focusing so much on external regulation of behavior and authoritarian measures, teachers and schools could perhaps make the most positive difference by working to develop LRS early on in students. Some ways to do that:
  • move from external controls to internal regulatory behaviors
  • cooperative group work
  • games with complex rules (to promote executive function)
  • strong relationships with students to support them in perseverance, etc.
  • much practice with academic regulatory behaviors
  • "pretend" play
A few other notes:
Girls in kindergarten have more prosocial behavior than boys; boys show more externalizing behaviors, which puts them at greater risk for failed academic achievement and even predicts drop outs.
Girls enter school with stronger literacy related skills (which affect gains in math and science as well) -- perhaps this is the reverse of the technical/spatial socialization advantage for boys.

Area #3: Resilience


From text:
  • resilience: ability to develop normally under difficult conditions ("ordinary magic")
  • adaptational systems: cognitive skills, attachment relationships, self-regulation of emotions and behavior, positive self-regard, self-efficacy, and intrinsic motivation
  • influenced by authoritative parenting (warm, secure, consistent) and positive school experiences (safe environment, supportive peers, positive teacher influences, opportunities to experience success)

Outside resources:
Kitano, M. K., & Lewis, R. B. (2005). Resilience and Coping: Implications for Gifted Children and Youth At Risk. Roeper Review, 27(4), 200-205. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Resilience and Coping

Key Points:
  • Four factors that function in predictable ways
    • compensatory factors: healthy family functioning, higher educational aspirations
    • risk factors: poverty, substance abuse
    • protective factors: self-esteem, positive coping strategies, internal locus of control, social skills
    • vulnerability factors: life stressors
  • Low income and culturally diverse youth likely have more experience dealing with adversity, may therefore have greater range and flexibility in coping strategies -- can be shared and taught
  • Schools have great potential to help youth develop more resilience. Requires: teachers with high expectations; learner-centered instruction; challenging, non-remedial curriculum; rigor and depth
  • Some strategies:
    • Build connections: identify mentors; encourage supportive friendships; encourage family, school, community connections; cooperative projects in class
    • Encourage self-efficacy: allow decision-making, learn from success and failure, solve problem in community, help others, develop hobbies
    • Encourage optimism: help youth process bad experiences and incorporate into concept of self, accept realities outside of their control without blaming themselves
    • Directly teach culturally relevant coping strategies: humor, spirituality, story-telling, positive self-statements; need to practice through role play; model planning, problem-solving and persisting
    • Validate experiences of bias: acknowledge social injustices and help identify strategies to overcome them; invite community members to speak about how they've overcome them
    • Support pride in heritage: promote ethnic identities



The effects of parenting has always been something that interests me. I never really thought of the challenges that my parents were faced with while I was developing through my adolescence.

Parents have a difficult job balancing the appropriate levels of control:
(Concepts and Research from the textbook)
· Behavioral control - parents setting rules, restrictions and limits on child's activities. This involves monitoring, structuring and tracking the behaviors.
· Psychological control - parents manipulating child's thoughts, feelings, and attachments. Aimed at controlling sense of self.

-Low levels of behavioral control are linked to externalizing problems such as drug use, truancy, and antisocial behavior.
-High levels of psychological control are linked to internalizing behaviors such as anxiety, depression, and withdrawn behaviors (Barber & Harmon, 2002).
-Parental responsiveness, high behavioral control, and low psychological control have all have links to adolescent self-disclosure (Criss, Pettit, Dodge, Bates, & Williams, 2006).
-These factors (above) create a family environment of supportiveness, openness, and trust (Henry, Robinson, Neal, & Huey, 2006).

McMahan (2009)

Outside research: Perceptions of autonomy support, parent attachment and self-worth.htm

The study indicates that there is a positive link between parent attachment and motivational orientation. In particular, students with higher scores on the attachment measure also reported a greater preference for challenging tasks (i.e., an intrinsic motivational orientation).

Attachment and Autonomy as Predictors of the Development of Social Skills and Delinquency During Midadolescence.mht
This study found that adolescent attachment organization at age 16 predicted relative changes in levels of social skills and delinquent behavior. Overall attachment insecurity predicted decreases in social skills, and attachment preoccupation predicted relative increases in delinquency when it occurred in conjunction with high levels of maternal autonomy.

Allen, J., Marsh, P., McFarland, C., McElhaney, K., Land, D. (2002). Attachment and autonomy as predictors of the development of social skills and delinquency during midadolescence. PubMed Central. February: 70(1), 56-66.

The literature on puberty and girls was also very relatable to me as I thought about my own experiences.

-Most girls feel embarrassment, self-consciousness, and worry about the hassle of supplies after their experience with menarche (Ruble & Brooks-Gunn, 1982).
-Breast development is noticed and often commented on by people in a girl's life - by adults and peers. The biggest source of negative feelings seems to be the way others react (Karen Martin, 1996). It can be a psychological stressor.
-Girls who have more preparation for menarche tend to have more positive attitudes about menstruation late on (Kieren & Morse, 1992).


Gender Differences with pubertal timing
-Girls who mature early tend to have lower self-esteem, and are more anxious and depressed (Ge, Conger, & Elder, 1996, 2001).
-Early female maturers are also more likely to get involved with smoking, drinking, drug use, and sex (Caspi, Lynam,Moffitt, & Silva, 1993).
-Girls who enter puberty earlier tend to end up shorter and heavier than those who mature later (Brooks-Gunn, 1991).

-Boys who reach puberty earlier have more positive self-images, are more popular with their peers, show more leadership and maturity, and show less problems with their parents (Jones, 1965; Jones & Bailey, 1950).
-Boys who enter puberty early are more likely to develop depressive symptoms and experience more hostile symptoms of internalized distress (Ge et al., 1997, 2001)
-Early maturing boys are linked to early involvement in drugs, alcohol, and sex (Andersson & Mafnusson, 1990).

----

The three areas which struck me sharp as I was reading it before and even as I revise through the text again are:



1. Paths of peer influence


How peers can influence each other and how we choose our peers is an interesting topic.

Conformity - Doing as others are doing or as others urge one to do, whether or not it fits with personal inclinations, values, and beliefs

Normative social influence - Acting like others because there is a social norm that prescribes doing as others do (Eg. If you are in a stadium, when a wave

comes around, you will probably stand and wave your hand)

Informational social influence - Acting like others because of a belief that others have better information about the correct thing to do (Eg. Stopping to

see what everyone is staring at in that tree)

Peers as Reference Group - Reference group is a set of people that someone looks on to for information about what to do and what constitutes doing well, as

well as evaluative comments and praise

Social comparison - The process of comparing one's status or performance to that of a particular reference group

Self re-inforcement - Rewarding or punishing oneself for what one considers a good or bad outcome of one's actions

Boosters and critics - people or words that motivate us and approve our actions can influence an adolescent's behavior and orientations

The need to belong is basic need that adolescents try to care of when they find peers.



2. Autonomy and control


Autonomy can be emotional or behavioral


Emotional autonomy - The ability to function without having to rely on others, such as parents, to provide a sense of comfort and security.

Behavioral autonomy - The ability to make one's own decisions and take responsibility for them

The degree of autonomy parents give their teens is affected by a variety of factors. These include age, of course, but also gender, cultural expectations,

and parental attitudes. Girls often have more input into family decisions than boys because girls are often seen as more mature. Asian American parents give

lesser autonomy than European American parents.


Control can be behavioral or psychological


Behavioral control - the rules and limits parents place on their child's activities (generall positive)

Psychological control - trying to contol children by acting on their thoughts and feelings (negative)



Autonomy and control are linked to or reflected in working models and attachment.

Internal Working model - the basic positive or negative concepts that children form about other people and about themselves.

Secure - Positive working model of self and others

Fearful - Negative working model of self and others

Preoccupied - Negative working model of self and positve working model of others

Dismissive - Positve working model of self and negative working model of others



Positive working model of the self is generated when the child is able to attract a caregiver's attention (I am important, I matter)

Positive working model of others is generated when a child receives responsive, affectionate care (The people who care for me are dependable)

Negative working model of the self is generated when the child is neglected (I am worthless, I don't matter)

Negative working model of others is generated when there is insensitive or inconsistent care (You can't count on them)


The style of attachment, working models and control continue into the future life of the adolescent.




3. Cognitive changes

From childhood to adolescence, key changes in cognition have happened and it is fascinating to know the way we can start thinking and reasoning. Some of the

content areas under this topic are

Inductive reasoning - The process of drawing a general conclusion from particular facts or instances

Hypothetico-deductive reasoning - a way of reasoning in which a person makes a logical prediction based on some supposition, and then checks the prediction

against reality.

Hypothetical alternatives - children tend to accept things as they are, but adolescents can question the present. They can measure it against abstract

concepts such as fairness, justice, and human rights, and see where it falls short. They can imagine ways in which the world could be different and better.

Understanding multiple meanings - Eg. Suppose you tell a friend that you have a big exam coming up next week, but you don't intent to start studying until

the day before. Your friend shakes his head and remarks, "You know what they say, a stitch in time saves nine". You know that he is talking about preparing

early for the exam and not about sewing.

Adolescent egocentrism - the process of assuming that other people's points of view are the same as one's own

Imaginary audience - an aspect of adolescent egocentrism that involves believing that one is the focus of other's attention and involvement

Personal fable - believing that one's experiences are unique and that one is exempt from the usual consequences of one's actions

Outside content :

Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development : http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/29997/vygotskys_theory_of_cognitive_development.html
Tobacco - Peer and parental influence : http://www.sophe.org/schoolhealth/tobacco_pdfs/peer_and_parental_influences.pdf
3 types of social influence : http://www.joshuadfoster.com/socinf.pdf


*Identify Formation*
From text:
Erikson’s identify crisis – an adolescent’s response to the tension between the need to explore what is unique about oneself and the wish to become someone who will get respect and validation from family, friends, and community

Psychosocial moratorium – a period in which adolescents are given a degree of freedom to explore their impulses, talents, interests, social roles, and beliefs that fear that minor offenses against convention will bring drastic consequences

Identify Foreclosure – a process in which adolescents commit themselves to the identities assigned to them by their parents and community, while shutting off other possible paths of development

Identify diffusion – a reluctance or refusal to consider identify issues; identify confusion

Identify Achievement – having the chance to explore and then commit (McMahan, 2009, p. 367-369)

McMahan, I. (2009). Adolescence. New York, NY: Pearson Education, Inc.

--I found identity formation amongst adolescence as a crucial component to their formation as adults. Every case study we discussed touched on some component of identity formation. Also, many other areas that we studied (ie – parenting styles, school environment, friendships) tie into an adolescences formation of their own identity.
Outside Resources:


This article discusses parenting and its impact on identity formation. This study used a narrative approach to understand participants’ identity development in relation to low points in adolescence. Findings included those that were more identity achieved were better able to resolve their low point conflicts and that positive parenting should provide scaffolding to help children mature independently and develop a better sense of self.

Dumas, T. M., Lawford, H., Tieu, T., & Pratt, M. W. (2009). Positive parenting in adolescence and its relation to low point narration and identity status in emerging adulthood: A longitudinal analysis. Developmental Psychology, 45(6), 1531-1544. doi:10.1037/a0017360

Ethnic Identity
"For adolescents who belong to non-dominant minorities, part of the challenge in understanding social relationships is to understand those in higher status group" (McMahan, 2009, p. 373).

Phinney's Stages of Ethnic Identity (p. 374)
  • unexamined
  • exploration
  • achieved ethnic identity

Between Two Cultures (p. 374-375)
  • Integration/Biculturalism (alternating bicultural and blended bicultural)- identification with majority and ethnic culture
  • Separation- no identification with majority and identification with ethnic culture
  • Assimilation- identification with majority culture and no identification with ethnic culture
  • Marginalization- no identification with either culture

The concept of developing a cultural identity was always something that interested me, especially because of teaching ESL. I never thought about marginalization, however, until I read about it in McMahan's text and while reading the case study "Caught Between Two Cultures."

The link below is for an article explaining voluntary/involuntary minorities and the difference between Blacks from Africa and the Caribbean.

A Study of Ogbu and Simons’ Thesis Regarding Black Children’s Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Status and School Achievement

Gilbert, S. (2009). A study of ogbu and simons’ thesis regarding black children’s immigrant and non-immigrant status and school achievement. The Negro Educational Review, 60, 71- 91.

Sleep Needs (p. 97)
  • 9 or more hours a night
  • Timing is crucial- delayed phase preference- stay up later and get up later. Possibly related to puberty shifts with concentrations of the sleep-related hormone melatonin during the nighttime hours.


Because I have a 12 year old, I have become very interested in media usage among adolescents and what effects media use might have (positive or negative). I am totally amazed by the amoung of time kids spend using media daily. I am also interested in the gender differences in media use.
From Text:
  • 6.5-8 hours of free time a day
  • 6 or more of it engaged with some form of mass media (TV, music, internet, videogames)
  • boys watch more TV; girls listen to more music
  • boys play video and computer games more than girls; both sexes use computer about equally
  • SES liked to media exposure; teens with lower incomes spend more time on TV, video games, and music but not computer use (McMahan, 2009, p273, 275).

Ohannessian, C.M. (2009). Media use and adolescent psychological adjustment: An examination of gender differences. Jounal of Child and Family Studies, 18, 582-593.



This study examines media use and psychological adjustment (anxiety and depression). They found that gender differences existed. Boys play more video games than girls; girls spend more time of the phone than boys. Girls have a tendency to email and IM more than boys. No gender differences were observed for time spent on the internet or TV viewing. An important finding for this study: Adolescents who spent a lot of time on the internet (2+ hours) were more anxious than those who spent less time. However, none of the other types of media examined were related to depression or anxiety. Their results also suggest that media use may actually serve as a protective factor for boys.

Roberts, D.F. & Foehr, U.G. (2008). Trends in media use. The Future of Children, 18(1), 11-37.



This is an article, rather than a study, that provides information about media use and children/adolescents. They discuss how media use and exposure vary with demographic factors, and discuss why they feel a digital divide exists. They also present evidence relating to the existence of a digital divide.

Another topic of interest for me came not from the text, but from the case study on which I presented. Some of the information I found for my research was really interesting and something I can definitely take with me as I get ready to begin my career. I found so much information about the gender differences associated with ADHD. I really found the link between ADHD in females and the development of eating disorders to be very interesting.

Bulinia nervosa: an eating disorder in which the person alternates between binge overeating and purging. The stomach acid brought up by frequent vomiting can damage the esophogus and eat away at tooth enamel. An effective approach to treat bulimia is CBT, which involves helping the adolescent change distorted beliefs about weight and food and confront dysfunctional thought patterns. They are taught healthy habits such as eating smaller portions more regularly. Antidepressant meds that affect serotonin regulation are said to help, both by improving the adolescent's mood and by reducing the urge to binge (McMahan, 2009, p. 454-455).

Biederman, J., Ball, S.W., Monuteaux, M.C., Surman, C.B., Johnson, J.L., & Zeitlin, S. (2007). Are girls with ADHD at risk for eating disorders? Results from a controlled, five-year prospective study. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 28, 302-307.



They found that adolescent girls with ADHD were at an elevated risk for developing an eating disorder, with a particular risk for developing bulimia nervosa. They also found that these females had increased rates of mood, anxiety, and disruptive behavior disorders and an earlier age at onset of menarche compared to their ADHD peers without eating disorders.


Mikami, A.Y., Hinshaw, S.P., Patterson, K.A., & Lee, J.C. (2008). Eating pathology among adolescent girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117(1), 225-235.



These authors found that girls with combined type ADHD are at risk for bulimia nervosa and body image dissatisfaction. Childhood impulsivity symptoms best predicted adolescent eating patholgy. Peer rejection predicted desire to lose weight.

The third topic that is of interest to me is the sibling relationship. I have a brother who is 13 years younger than me so I was/am like an only child. We do not have a typical sibling relationship because of our age difference. My youngest two are 13 months apart so watching them together is a whole new world for me so I am very interested in what the research says about sibling relationships.

From text:
  • The sibling relationship can be complementary, like the parent-child, and reciprocal, like the equal friendship between friends.
  • De-identification: process in which siblings deliberately define themselves as different from one another by taking up different interests, activities, friends, etc.
  • Sibling collusion: situation in which siblings form coalitions that encourage deviant or problem behavior.
  • Conflict between siblings peaks early in adolescence; as adolescence goes on, sibling relationships become calmer and more equal, but also more distant
  • Siblings who were relatively close as children remain fairly close as adolescents - this is particularly true for same-sex siblings. They continue to see each other as important and intimate relations and turn to each other for companionship and support, also continue to influence each other (McMahan, 2009, p. 162)

Other research:

This study found that when the quality of the sibling relationship was low, the older sibling was more likely to have delinquent behaviors. they also found that higher levels of older sibling delinquency was linked to higher levels of younger sibling delinquency.



Buist, K.L. (2010). Sibling relationship quality and adolescent delinquency: A latent growth curve approach. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(4), 400-410. doi: 10.1037/a0020351.


These researchers attempts to measure younger siblings' perceptions of how often they try to be like (modeling) and how often they try to be different (deidentification) from their older siblings in four domains: athletics, arts, academics, and conduct/risky behavior. They also wanted to assess sibling relationship qualities. They found three patterns of influence: one in which the younger sibling was trying to be like the older sibling in all measured domains and one in which the sibling was trying to be different in all those domains. The third pattern that emerged was younger siblings who did not appear to use their older sibling as a reference and appears to be an uninvolved/distant type of sibling relationship.


Whiteman, S.D., McHale, S.M., & Crouter, A.C. (2007). Competing processes of sibling influence: Observational learning and sibling deidentification. Social Development, 16(4), 642-661. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00409.x.


Coping- Various ways adolescents develop to handle situations that create stress
Problem-focused coping- Trying to manage a stressful situation by analyzing it and mobilizing the means to change it in a positive direction.
Emotion-focused copying- Trying to manage the negative psychological effects of a stressful situation that does not seem open to being changed.
resilience- the capacity to develop normally and positively under difficult conditions.
Five Cs:
Competence-being aware that one can act effectively in specific domains. The social domain includes interpersonal skills such as conflict resolution. The cognitive domain involves such skills as making effective decisions. The academic domain includes study habits and school grades.
Confidence- an internal sense of overall positive self-worth and self-efficacy.
Character- having respect for social and cultural rules, a sense of right and wrong, and personal integrity.
Connection- Developing positive bonds with peers, family members school and community that lead to exchanges in which both parties contribute to the growth of the relationship.
Caring- Having a sense of sympathy and compassion for others.
If adolscents develop the five Cs then they will also be on their way to Contributions(to self, family, and community)
-All of this is from the text: McMahan, Ian(2009). Adolescence. Boston, MA. Pearson Education, Inc.

Ogbu: caste-like vs voluntary minorities
http://faculty.washington.edu/rsoder/EDUC310/OgbuSimonsvoluntaryinvoluntary.pdf
http://sitemaker.umich.edu/356.pitts/ogbu_theory_
http://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/marilynm/Theorizing_Black_America_Syllabus_files/Ogbu%27s%20theory%20of%20academic%20disengagement.pdf
http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=jCnRG-jS_rAC&oi=fnd&pg=PA19&dq=ogbu&ots=WvYbbnPEOv&sig=R5Rl3PHw0B816CZDVtU44FgZPGg#v=onepage&q=ogbu&f=false

From text (McMahan, 2009)
Peer influence:
Conformity - doing as others are doing or as others urge one to do, whether of not it fits with personal inclinations, values, and beliefs
- study by Solomon Asch (1953) - college students asked to jude which of 3 lines was the same length as another line - after several rounds, the other participants gave the wrong answer on purpose to see how the other participant would respond
Normative social influence - acting like others because there is a social norm that prescribes doing as other do
Informational social influence - acting like others because of a belief that others have better information about the correct thing to do
Reference group - a set of people that someone looks to for information about what to do and what constitutes doing well, as well as evaluative comments and praise
- orientation to a certain group depends on adolescents' social links and affiliations

Similarity - more likely to observe/imitate those who seem to be like us
Status - more likely to observe/imitate those who are admired or successful
Social power - more likely to observe/imitate those who control resources that are important to us (ex .praise and criticism)

Social comparison - the process of comparing one's status or performance to that of a particular reference gorup
Self-reinforcement - rewarding or punishing oneself for what one considers a good or bad outcome of one's actions
Need to belong - the drive to be part of the social group and to feel accepted by others

Parental style related to dealing with pressure to conform to peers - adolescents with warm, accepting, moderately controlling parents are better relationships with peers
- overly strict parents and permissive/neglecting parents - teens tend to turn more to peers for advice, leading to greater peer influence

Status categories: popular, rejected, neglected, controversial, and average
- neglected category - often shy and passive and keep from making social connections, but are not really upset about their status (p.190)