1. Bullying is a troubling adolescent issue which has recently received national attention in the media. Imagine that you are an “adolescence expert” who is called upon to address the issue of bullying in a middle school. Using the research and the course material, lay out a “persuasive plan” for how you might address bullying in this school setting. Consider building a case for the importance of the topic, and then answering key questions about how, when, and why we should or should not address the issue. Be sure to frame your answer in the language of the text and consider relevant research.

Bullying can range from verbal insults to social exclusion to physical assault. Because of the school setting, bullying is a daily occurrence, year after year in some cases. Longitudinal studies show that the same children seem to be victimized each school year.
Bullying does not only affect the victim, studies have shown that those who witness bullying have had an increased level of anxiety.
The most likely victims of bullying are those who are already seen at the bottom of the social ladder. Some characteristics of these adolescents are a tendency to be withdrawn, depressed, insecure, fearful, and have poor social skills.
In some cases, the bully and the victim are one in the same. Those who are victimized in turn victimize others.
Bullying and victimizing reaches a peak during early adolescence, more specifically in 6th grade. One of the reasons for this may be the transition from elementary to secondary schooling, pushing them into a new social setting.
Bullying is attributed to almost 3/4 of all school shootings. Beyond the victims and the bullies, an environment of fear can occur in a school setting causing learning to suffer. This can cause some to join in the bullying (if you can't beat them, join them) or to avoid school all together.
Norway and Sweden in the 1980's, a major effort to end bullying in schools was carried out. Olweus approach, Set of rules that apply to all students, not just those involved in bullying. Found to have dropped the bullying rate by 50% in 2 years and continued to drop as the program continued.
1. we do not bully other students
2. we try to help students who are bullied
3. we make a point of including all students who are easily left out
4. when we know someone is being bullied, we tell a teacher, parent, or adult we trust
There are also steps that need to be taken to implement the program. These are separated into three different levels.
1. on a school wide level
  • giving out an anonymous questionnaire to determine the nature and extent of the problem
  • building a conference day to acquaint school personnel with the program and involve them actively in putting it into effect
  • forming a school wide committee to coordinate anti-bullying efforts
  • meeting with parents to make them aware of the need for the program and to explain how it will make the school a safer and more positive learning experience
2. On a classroom level
  • helping students to develop classroom rules against bullying and to take responsibility for conforming to them
  • creating positive consequences for pro-social behavior and sanctions for bullying, malicious teasing, social exclusion, and other forms of harassment
  • holding regular class meetings to discuss and evaluate the success of the program
  • teach students that each one of them DOES play a role in bullying; no one can claim innocence unless they're actively helping to stop it -- Olweus uses a chart similar to this one:
    • Bullying Circle
    • Our school does this -- not just the bully, but other instigators or bystanders get consequences as well
3. on a individual level (program targets specific students who are involved in bullying, as a bully or victim)
  • bullies are given clear, strong message that bullying is unacceptable, that it carries serious consequences, and that their future actions will be closely watched
  • victims are told how the school staff intend to deal with the bully and are urged to report any new bullying episodes immediately
  • parents of both bullies and victims are brought into the process and encouraged to support the school's efforts to avert any further episodes of bullying
McMahan, I. (2009). Adolscence. New York New York: Pearson.


From Textbook:
-Social acceptance is the 2nd most important factor in having high self-esteem (McMahan, 2009, p.364)
-There is a correlation between self-esteem and school achievement (McMahan, 2009, p.365)
-Friendship can play protective role against effects of bullying:
-children with internalizing problems (anxiety, submissive, low self-confidence) more likely to experience victimization but less likely if they have at least one high-quality friendship
-among children who were equally victimized, those with one close friendship showed fewer emotional problems a year later (p. 397)
-these studies show importance of helping students build friendships -- our counselor does this at lunchtimes -- organizes friendship lunches for students who may be more socially vulnerable, does special trips with them, etc.

Outside Research:
-Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (2011). Retrieved from http://www.olweus.org/public/bullying.page
This website has a lot of information on what bullying is, the impact of bullying, and how the school climate can be affected if bullying is not taken care of. This website also gives statistics about how many kids are bullyied in grades 6-10. This website also gives benefits of a bullying prevention program. It also gives ideas for schools to implement if they cannot afford a formal bullying prevention program.

Olweus is a universal (whole-school) intervention, as opposed to a targeted intervention, which only addresses those directly involved in such incidents.

Why an anti-bullying program should be implemented:
bullied students experience depression (McMahan, 2009, p. 456), low self-esteem, health problems, poor grades, suicidal thoughts (McMahan, 2009, p. 460)
Antisocial teens tend to overestimate how antisocial their peers are, and so, in an effort to measure up, antisocial behavior (such as bullying) tends to escalate and be perceived as more normative (McMahan, 2009, p. 439).

Bullying, and in particular physical bullying, has been found to be predictive of anti-social outcomes in adulthood. For this reason, it has been suggested that anti-bullying programs are integrated with child-oriented and family-oriented strategies for crime prevention.
Bender, Doris; Losel, Friedrich. (April 2011). Bullying at school as a predictor of delinquency, violence, and other anti-social behavior in adulthood. Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 21(2), 99-106. Abstract.

When to implement:
An anti-bullying program aimed at 4-6th graders directed at "whole groups" was researched after noting a discrepancy between the anti-bullying attitudes of bystanders and their tacit approval of such behavior by observing and failing to offer aid or intervene. There was a positive impact on frequency of bullying acts, both observed and reported; on attitudes and efficacy beliefs; and to some extent on participant role behvior.
Salmivalli, Christine; Karkiainen, Ari; Volten, Marinus. (September 2005) Anti-bullying intervention: implementation and outcome. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75(3), 465-487.

Here is a like to a program review of the Olweus Program: http://www.colorado.edu/cspv/blueprints/modelprograms/BPP.html

From article:
students (particularly boys) who bully others are especially likely to engage in other antisocial/delinquent behaviors such as vandalism, shoplifting, truancy and frequent drug use.

Here is a study that evaluates the Olweus Bullying Prevention and its potential effectiveness in low-income areas.



Response to Bullying behavior in Low-Income Schools

1. Stress the importance of teacher response to and prevention of bullying.
2. Generally teachers are hesitant to do this in such an atmosphere.
3. Low income areas are more likely to use stronger disciplinary action in reaction to bullying. Including involving police, even mandatory curfews.
4. School officials fail to provide students with neccessary skills to avoild voilence and bullying, only disciplining the problem...not helping to prevent it.

Approaches for such areas

1. Outreach into the community is critical.
2. Involvement of community leaders
3. Implement anti-bullying strategies outside the school, in youth related activities

The article is calling for more research to be done, but it does outline the importance for implementation of anti-bullying policies outside of the educational setting.
Hong, J. S. (2009). Feasibility of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program in Low-Income Schools. Journal of School Violence, 8(1), 81-97. doi:10.1080/15388220802067953
          • For those using Ebscohost for articles, if you click on the detailed record selection, it then takes you to a screen where on the right hand side you can select "cite". Select "cite" and the website then brings up multiple formats of citation, including APA. It can save you some time.
There is lots of good research embedded in the Hong article:
--Talbot (2002) low -income schools tend to be reactive rather than proactive where bullying is concerned, e.g., suspensions, especially for African-Amer boys
--Walter (2006) teachers lack confidence about how to manage disruptive school bullying
Bowen (1998) teachers need help in assisting kids to make sense of confusing and potentially dangerous situations
--Woodey, et. al. (2006) When teachers are supportive and caring, kids are less likely to act out and more likely to perform better academically
--Thomas and Smith (2004) there is a relationship between school disconnect and delinquency, drug use, and peer aggression. The frequent meting out of harsh punishment is in part responsible for that disconnect. Minnorities are more likely than whites to be harshly punished for "nebulous infractions" such as being too noisy.
--Eamon (2001) Authoritarian parenting predicts maladaptive behavior--Gross(1999) and aggression.
--Reskin, et. al (2003) In minority adolescents, internalizing problems caused by bullying are exacerbated by the additional stresses that come with an impoverishment. --King (1997) Destructive effects that contribute to peer aggression include economic deprivation, substance abuse, and access to guns.
--Sams and Truscott (2004) Classrooms need to promote empathy, which is clearly related to less aggressive behavior. Impaired empathy in inner city related to alcohol and drug use, inadequate parenting, limited educational opportunities, exposure to community violence.
Hasbrook and Harris (1990) African-Amer boys in inner city see empathy as feminine. The most popular boys are tough; competitive; dominating; challenge authority; express detachment from teachers, school, and academics; and disregard "feminine" responses, such as empathy.
Pyke and Dang (2003) Specifically intra-racial bullying takes place in some inner-city schools. Issues include "not being Black enough" and "acting White," as well as conflicts between second-generation Hispanic or Asian Americans and their immigrant counterparts, most of whom are still struggling with English. Interventions for such situations have not yet been researched.

Olweus has incorporated anti-bullying strategies through community leaders' providing youth activities and outreach







Some ideas of what the school could try to decrease bullying behavior:

  1. Take a communitywide and schoolwide level approach. Successful anti-bullying programs involve not only school staff, but students, parents, and the community. (Limber, 2004).
  2. Involve the students. If the students are involved in the process, they will be more invested in it. Here are some ideas of how to get the students involved.

1. Get older peers to serve as monitors for bullying and intervene when they see it taking place (Limber, 2004). One of the Lancaster schools has what is called a “Safety Patrol” where older students can earn the right to help police the hallways and write up students that are misbehaving.

2.Form friendship groups for adolescents who are regularly bullied by peers (Limber, 2004). One way to do this is called “Friendship Recess.” Basically, bullied and other socially maladjusted children are allowed to pick some of their peers to have lunch with in a special room in the school office.

3. Give out anonymous questionnaires to determine the nature and extent of the problem (Limber, 2004). Students as well as other school staff should be given these questionnaires. Giving out these questionnaires again helps students feel involved and thus more invested and the feedback can help the school determine the severity of the problem.



Limber, S. P. (2004). Implementation of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program in American schools: Lessons learned form the field. In D. L. Espelage & S. M Swerer (Eds.), Bullying in American schools. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

McMahan, I. (2008). Adolescence. Allyn & Bacon.

Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Cambridge, MA: Blacwell.

Santrock, J. W. (2006). Life-span development 10th edition. McGraw-Hill. New York.

Vossekuil, B., Fein, R. A., Reddy, M., Borum, R., & Modzeleski, W. (2002). The final report and findings of the Safe School Initiative: Implications for the prevention of school attacks in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Secret Service and Department of Education.

Attached is a research study regarding bullying, perceived effective and ineffective strategies according to school psycologists.



Effective Strategies
1. School wide behavior support plan.
2. Immediate responses to instances of bullying, with serious discussion.

Ineffective Strategies
1. Avoiding contact between bullies and their victims.
2. Disciplinary consequences for bullies.
3. Anti-bullying school policies.(mix reaction on this)

Areas for Improvement
1. Staff education and training.
2. Developing a bullying reporting procedure to track the behavior.
3. School wide positive behavior support plan.

Problems in Improving issues of Bullying
1. Perceived view that there is not a significant problem with bullying.
2. Lack of train and educated staff to handle the problem.

Sherer, Y. & Nickerson, A. (2010). Anti-bullying practices in American Schools: Perspectives of School Psychologists. Vol 47, 3, 217-229.
_

In response to the post above, I think all of the points are relevant. I spoke with some administrators who implement Olweus, and they all said that a reason this program can fail is because of lack of financial support, training, and consistency.




A number of common and unique predictors for the bully status groups. Future research on bullying and victimization prevention and intervention are discussed.

Some key points from this article
  • important ages: 29% of studies -- ages 5-11 (middle childhood); 23% of studies looked at ages 12-14 (so implication is that anti-bullying programs need to start in elementary school)
  • predictors for victims: lack social skills, negative self-related cognitions, difficulty solving social programs (implication: address these areas in interventions)
  • contrast in negative beliefs: bullies have these about others; victims have these about themselves
  • interventions need a multicontextual approach
    • behavioral parenting training
    • positive peer reporting at school
    • problem solving training for students
    • individual therapy for bullies (the authors pointed out that the Olweus program primarily deals with changing the context of bullying -- the way kids think about it and talk about it -- but doesn't focus much on changing the bully, that this is an area that must be dealt with for real change to happen in behavior)


Cook, C. R., Williams, K. R., Guerra, N. G., Kim, T. E., & Sadek, S. (2010). Predictors of bullying and
victimization in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic investigation. School Psychology
Quarterly, 25(2), 65-83.





In this study, the authors examined whether exposure to relational victimization was associated with children’s thoughts, emotions, and behavior in an unfamiliar, challenging peer context. This research provides insight into impairments associated with relational victimization that may contribute to the emergence and/or perpetuation of peer difficulties.


Rudolph, K. D., Troop-Gordon, W., & Flynn, M. (2009). Relational victimization predicts children’s social-cognitive and self-regulatory responses in a challenging peer context. Developmental Psychology, 45(5).


Social competence is important for students to learn. Teaching skills such as self-control, confidence, responsibility, cooperation, problem-solving skills, and conflict avoidance techniques give students tools to use to avoid being a victim or to stop bullying.

McMahan, I. (2009). Adolescence. Boston: Pearson.

I was trying to do research on the correlation between bullying and school uniforms. I thought this article was good, and very short do it's easy to read. Tanner, J. (2009). Making Schools Safer? The Unintended Consequences of Good Intentions. Education Canada, 49(3), 12-15



This is a little bit different of an angle, but important to keep in mind in light of our current society. This study looked at the the school climate and its affect on middle school students who were questioning their sexuality or have identified as LGB, along with heterosexual students. They were specifically interested in how the school climate and homophobic teasing/bullying affect drug use, depression/suicide, and truancy. Their research demonstrates that students who are LGB or questioning typically have high rates of negative outcomes, i.e., depression, heavy drug use, and bullying. These authors report that ALL children, regardless of sexuality, reported the lowest levels of everything they looked at when in a positive school climate and not experiencing homophobic teasing, which was why I decided to add this. I think this last point is relevant for all schools regardless of what type of bullying occurs.



Birkett, M., Espelage, D.L., & Koenig, B. (2009). Lgb and questioning students in schools: The moderating effects of homophobic bullying and school climate on negative outcomes. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 989-1000. doi: 10.1007/s10964-008-9389-1.

Here's another good article. These authors conducted a review and meta-analyses of anti-bullying programs in schools. They discuess what works for bullying prevention and what aspects needs to be included. Parent training, improved playground supervision, disciplinary methods, school conferences, information for parents, classroom rules and classroom management are what these authors found to be most associated with a decreas in bullying.



Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2009). What works in preventing bullying: Effective elements of anti-bullying programmes. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 1(1), 13-24.

http://psycserver.psyc.queensu.ca/craigw/Pepler_Craig_Ziegler_Charach_1993.pdf
an article examining an anti-bullying intervention program


Fox, C. L., & Boulton, M. J. (2006). Friendship as a moderator of the relationship between social skills problems and peer victimisation. Aggressive Behavior, 32(2), 110-121. doi:10.1002/ab.20114
(Fox & Boulton, 2006)
This article talks about who are likely targets for bullies. These characteristics include such as being at the bottom of the social ladders, socially immaturity, and withdrawal. Fox & Boulton also described a good way to prevent bullying is to encourage adolescents to have at least one close friend with whom they can depend and relate to.


Facts from Psychology Texts

1. Bullying can be physcial or emotional (Berger, 2004).

2. There are two types of victims:
- Passive victims are passive and unable to fight back.
- Provocative victims are impulsive and act without thinking.
(Berger, 2004)

3. Bullies tend to be children whose parents use physical discipline and have little empathy (Berger, 2004).

4. More children are hit, kicked and bullied in 5th to 8th grade than in high school (Berger, 2004).

5. Four steps that need to be implemented in school to reduce the effects of bullying and violence in schools...
- establish norms where differences are celebrated not put down
- create a society where caring and respect are the norm
- work to improve the child's relationship at home and at school
- include young people viewpoints and ideas in the process
(Berger, 2004)

6. Bullying can become particularly serious as children enter early adolescence (Slavin, 2003).

7. One way to stop bullying is for the victim to let the bully know that they will not tolerate being victimized (Schickedanz, Schickedanz, Forsyth, & Forsyth, 2001).

References:

Berger, E. (2004). Parents as Partners in Education. Upper Sadler River, NJ: Pearson.

Schickedanz, J., Schickedanz, D., Forsyth, P., Forsyth, G. (2001). Understanding Children and Adolescent. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Slavin, R. (2003). Educational Psychology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.


Facts from Research

This study was conducted to describe how adolescents see the issue of bullying. 119 high school students (average age 17) took part in the study.

-Several interesting results from this study...

1. 39% percent of adolescents report that they have been bullied during their schooling
2. 13% percent acknowledge that they were both a bully and a victim.
3. In this study, bullying was most common between the ages of 10-12.
4. When adolescents were surveyed, 40% believe children are bullied because of their appearace and 36% believe children are bullied because of their behavior.
5. When adolescents were surveyed, 28% believe children bully each other because the bully has low self-esteem, 26% believe children bully each other because the bully wants to feel cool.
6. When adolescents were surveyed, 24% believe bullying stops because the bully matures, 15% believe bullying stops because the victim stands up for themselves, and 14% believe bullying stops because an adult intervenes.

Adolescents' perception of bullying: who is the victim? who is the bully? What can be done to stop bullying?
http://ehis.ebscohost.com.navigator-millersville.passhe.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=5&hid=1&sid=14c4dcc3-3591-489e-8233-25a7e7a43625%40sessionmgr10




As per the question, if I were an adolescence expert, I would suggest the following 10 steps to schools to eliminate the practice of bullying..


1) defining bullying

2) knowing how bullying manifests in action

3) why someone becomes a bully

4) understanding the effects it has on victims

5) understanding the effects it has on other school/class mates/general school environment

6) addressing the causes of someone becoming a bully

7) taking action on bullies

8) taking care of victims

9) establishing rules and an atmosphere that makes bullying a strange occurrence

10) following up and reviewing


Why does someone become a bully?

Much of our discussion looks at the bully as a criminal even when we know that the bully is also in a stage of development. Dr. Nathaniel Branden, a psychotherapist quotes (nathanielbranden.com) that a bully is emotionally weak and hides his fears and insecurities behind the mask of dominance. Addressing the emotional state and needs of a bully is a crucial step in addressing the issue of bullying.

Reasons for someone becoming a bully :

-Insecure attachments and working models can instill hostility and frustration in kids (McMahan, 2009)
-Lack of affection at home
-Bullying as an acceptable behavior at home
-Lack of guidance, correction and supervision at home

Characteristics of bullying : http://www.behavioradvisor.com/Bullying.html
Common characteristics seen in bullies : http://www.allbestarticles.com/culture-and-society/education/common-characteristics-seen-in-bullies.html
http://www.bullyonline.org/workbully/serial.htm


How to spot/identify bullying in schools?

-Active watching in schools
-Public announcements and discussions in school
-scope for one-on-one discussion
-frequent student and parent meetings
-questionnaires
-creating a culture of openness

http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/ric/CDROMs/POP1_60/Problem-Specific/BullyinginSchools.pdf

http://www.parentinged.com/bullying/How-To-Identify-And-Prevent-Bullying-In-School.html

what parents can do : http://www.education.com/static/ebook/education-com-bullying-ebook.pdf



Intervention strategies

http://www.nasponline.org/resources/principals/nassp_bullying.aspx
http://heapro.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/2/155.full
http://tqe.siu.edu/Bullying%20Module/pdf/Intervention%20stragegies.pdf




This longitudinal study explores bullying as students progress from primary to secondary schools. It also looks at the concepts of victimization and dominance as it pertains to bullying. Multiple methods are used in additional to questionaires for this case study which is more unique and detailed than most studies that just involved questionaires.

http://ehis.ebscohost.com.navigator-millersville.passhe.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=5&hid=6&sid=bd56b4d3-b79d-4e68-a537-d555e47802e1%40sessionmgr14





This article examineds social-emotional and behavior problems of bullies, victims of bullies, and those who are both bullies and victims of bullies. The factors that were examined were retaliatory attitudes, aggressive-impulsive behavior problems, internalizing symptoms, such as anxiety and depression, peer relationships, and perceptions of safety and beloningness. This study emphasizes the significance of bullying in relation to these various factors.

O'Brennan, L.M., Bradshaw, C.P., & Sawyer, A.L. (2009). Examining developmental differences in the social-emotional problems among frequent bullies,
victims, and bully/victims. Psychology in the School, 46(2), 100-115.


This study examined the efficacy of a shortened version of the Bully Busters program, which is designed for teachers to help increase their knowledge and use of bullying inteventions in schools and to increase their self-efficacy to intervene in bullying incidents.

Bell, C.D. (2010). Bully Busters abbreviated: Evaluation of a group-based bully intervention and prevention program. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 14(3), 257-267.


This study discusses the implications for authoritative discipline theory in the school setting. This theory maintains that a combination of structure and support are important aspects in school disciplie. When these factors are present in schools, it has been shown that there is often less bullying and victimization among students. Additionally, this theory is modeled after Baumrind's authoritative parenting style, incorporating supervision and strict rules with warm support, acceptance, and involvement.

Gregory, A., Cornell, D., Fan, X., Sheras, P., Shih, T.H., Huang, F. (2010). Authoritative school discipline: High school practices associated with lower bullying and victimization. Journal of Education Psychology, 102(2), 483-496.


Here is an article on the affectiveness of adolescents using assertive communication skills to reduce bullying behaviors.


Assertive Communication Strategies

• Respond calmly and directly as soon as you realize that your rights have been violated
• Focus on the specific behavior that compromised your rights by using “I” statements
• Share the feelings you experienced as a result of the behavior
• Describe your preferred outcome and discuss how to handle future situations.


Techniques for Assertively
Refusing Peer Requests
(How to Say “No!”)

• Repeat, Repeat ("The main idea of this technique is to keep repeating the same response over and over.")
• Refuse to Discuss ("Students can employ 'refuse to discuss' in numerous ways, such as walking away, saying, 'I don’t want to talk about it,' or changing the subject.")
• Fogging ( 'Fogging' is a strategy that involves not telling the whole truth, or coming up with an excuse or a “white lie” to remove the pressure of saying “no.)
• Compromise ( In situations where holding a hard stance on “no” is unnecessary, “compromise” (offering a suggestion that meets the needs of both individuals) may be appropriate; although a more involved technique, it works very effectively.)
• Take the Offense (complex technique that involves taking charge of the discussion and planning an offense to address the problem.)





Even when bullying does not drive victims to the extremes of suicide, victims experience significant psychological harm which interferes with their social and academic and emotional development.



Kolb, S, & Griffith, S. (2009). Empowering students through assertive communication. Teaching Exceptional Children, 41(3), 32-36.




This article has some interesting information and statistics regarding bullying. It includes aspects such as teacher intervention, bystander behavior, and student’s beliefs and perceived consequences. The study compared schools implementing a specific bullying program – Steps to Respect - with those that did not. The control group became more accepting of bullying behaviors over the course of the year. Generally, a more longitudal study needs to evaluate the program after implementation at several grade levels and those students who have had the program for several years.

Frey, K. S., Hirschstein, M. K., Snell, J. L., Edstrom, L., MacKenzie, E. P., & Broderick, C. J. (2005). Reducing Playground Bullying and Supporting Beliefs: An Experimental Trial of the Steps to Respect Program. Developmental Psychology, 41(3), 479-491. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.41.3.479


From text:
  • Teens who are popular are often seen as aggressive - Relational Aggression - the aim to damage people's personal and social relationships through ridicule, exlusion and malicious gossip (p. 193).
  • These teens use relational aggression to keep their position at the top. Most often applies to girls...Mean Girls.
  • Positive classroom and school climate (the general learning atmosphere in a school, including the attitudes of students and staff, order and discipline, and student participation) are important in prevention.

I found this website Stop Bullying while just browsing about bullying. It's a government website that has a video from the White House conference on bullying from March 10th. The website also outlines state policies and laws, along with a section devoted to cyber bullying

What is a parent's role if their child is a bully?


1. Talk to your child, talk to his or her teachers and administrators. Keep in mind that a bully will try to deny or minimize his or her wrong-doing.
2. Make it clear to your child that you will not tolerate this kind of behaviour, and discuss with your child the negative impact bullying has on the victims. Do not accept explanations that "it was all in fun."
3. Arrange for an effective, non-violent consequence, which is in proportion with the severity of your child's actions, and his or her age and stage of development. Corporal punishment carries the message that "might is right."
4. Increase your supervision of your child's activities and whereabouts, and who they are associating with. Spend time with your child, and set reasonable rules for their activities and curfews.
5. Co-operate with the school in modifying your child's aggressive behaviour. Frequent communication with teachers and/or administrators is important to find out how your child is doing in changing his or her behaviour.
6. Praise the efforts your child makes toward non-violent and responsible behaviour, as well as for following home and school rules. Keep praising any efforts the child makes.
7. If your child is viewing violent television shows, including cartoons, and is playing violent video games, this will increase violent and aggressive behaviour. Change family and child's viewing and play patterns to non-violent ones.
8. Make sure that your child is not seeing violence between members of his or her family. Modelling of aggressive behaviour at home can lead to violence by the child against others at school and in later life.
9. Seek help from a school psychologist, social worker, or children's mental health centre in the community if you would like support in working with your child.

A school-based anti-violence program. (1996). Bullying

Information on Bullying for Parents and Teachers (1996).htm

From textbook:

-Many who are victimized tend to blame themselves and avoid social situations. This makes them more likely victims (Hodges & Perry, 1999).
-Having a best friend can help protect someone from the vicious circle (Fox & Boulton, 2006).
-I like the idea of the friendship programs that can be implemented in school by teachers or guidance counselors because kids tend to stay away from bully victims so that they won't be targeted as well (Merten, 1996).

When thinking about where bullying occurs, I automatically assumed it occurs in school during times where there are lots of people and not a lot of structure. I found an article that supported this claim. The article said that two of the most common places that students were bullied were at lunch and during breaks in class. I'm going to further that to hallways and school buses. Here is the article that supported these claims:
Isernhagen, J., & Harris, S. (2002). A Comparison of 9th and 10th Grade Boys' and Girls' Bullying Behaviors in Two States. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.





This piece offers a nice overview of bullying, different models of bullying, some definitions, bullying differences between gender and the impact bullying has on individuals.
Safran, Elysa R. (2007). Bullying behavior, bully prevention programs and gender. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 7(4).